Innovations and Future Directions in the Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies

Edited by Ross G. Menzies, Michael Kyrios, Nikolaos Kazantzis

University of Sydney, Australian National University, Monash University

Across the globe, cognitive and behavioural therapies (CBT) are used every day by a wide variety of health professionals  including psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, and social workers to change peoples’ lives. Since 1995 the World Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies (WCBCT) has showcased the latest advances in CBT to an international professional audience.

Now for the first time this unique book draws together a veritable ‘who’s who’ of leading CBT researchers and practitioners presenting their work at the 2016 WCBCT. Over 190 leading researchers and practitioners from across Britain, Europe, North and South America, Asia and Australia contribute to 53 concise and insightful essays summarising their work, where it fits in the broader field, clinical implications, and directions for future research and practice. Together they illustrate the tremendous capacity for CBT to contribute to the mental and physical wellbeing of people everywhere.  

Topics covered include:

  • child, adolescent and youth mental health
  • anxiety
  • trauma, PTSD and grief
  • obesity and eating disorders
  • depression and bipolar disorders
  • obsessive compulsive and related disorders
  • psychosis
  • alcohol and substance misuse
  • health and chronic medical disorders
  • comorbidity
  • transdiagnostic issues
  • e-therapy
  • training, practice and access


The concept for a comprehensive volume on innovations and future directions in the behavioural and cognitive therapies arose from early discussions within the Australian team bidding to host the World Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies (WCBCT). It seemed a shame that so many wonderful presentations from past events were simply lost after the event. Much of the data presented would inevitably find its way into a large number of disparate scientific journals, but an account of the state of knowledge about cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) and the treatment of the mental disorders at the time of each congress has not been documented until now. 

In this volume, we have provided a book of readily consumable essays from leading figures across all areas relevant to CBT. The chapters were commissioned only months before the 8th WCBCT and the volume therefore gives us a clear sense of ‘the state of play’ at the beginning of 2016. In addition, the contributors were explicitly encouraged to make their chapters ‘opinion pieces’. The authors were not required to present research findings, but were asked to give a summary of their work and the broader field. In addition, they were required to provide explicit sections on the clinical implications of their work and the directions for future research and practice.

Having conceived the book, how did we go about selecting the contributors? In many ways, this was the toughest job of all. The WCBCT brings the ‘best of the best’ from across mental health together at one place and time. With over 1000 presentations on offer, how could we choose the material for the volume? Fortunately, the scientific committee had developed a rigorous system of review for all submissions that we decided to use for our selection. Each paper and symposium was judged by a minimum of two independent reviewers. They were scored on a range of criteria including scientific quality, relevance of the topic to the WCBCT audience, level of innovation, and likely impact on the field. To ensure that the chapters were sufficiently broad in their coverage, we considered only the symposium submissions in the final selection. The 63 submissions that scored above 19 out of 25 on the independent reviews were offered inclusion in the volume. An impressive 53 took up our offer, and their chapters make up the final book.

The theme of the 8th WCBCT was Advances and Innovations in the Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies across the World. It was a particularly inclusive event, calling for papers in a broad range of subthemes or topic areas. The book is divided into sections that mirror these subthemes. We were fortunate to receive high quality symposium submissions in the majority of the listed topics, and so the breadth of our volume is impressive. The list of contributors is also impressive — a veritable ‘who’s who’ of clinical psychology and related fields. Over 190 leading authors from across Britain, Europe, North and South America, Asia and Australia have contributed to this volume.

We hope you will enjoy this collection of short chapters. It is our view that they will bring quickly up to date with the world of CBT in 2016.

Ross G. Menzies, Michael Kyrios, Nikolaos Kazantzis

About the Author

Ross G. Menzies
A/Professor Menzies completed his undergraduate, masters and doctoral degrees in psychology at the University of NSW. He is currently an Associate Professor in Health Sciences at the University of Sydney. In 1991, he was appointed founding Director of the Anxiety Disorders Clinic at the University of Sydney, a post which he held for over 20 years.  He is the past NSW President, and twice National President, of the Australian Association for Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (AACBT). He is the editor of Australia's national CBT journal, Behaviour Change, and has trained psychologists, psychiatrists and allied health workers in CBT around the globe. A/Professor Menzies is an active researcher with two decades of continuous funding from national competitive sources. He has produced 7 books and more than 150 journal papers and book chapters. Most recently, he was the President and Convenor of the 8th World Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies. 

Michael Kyrios
Professor Mike Kyrios is Director of the Research School of Psychology at the Australian National University and President of the Australian Psychological Society (APS). He also holds honorary positions at the University of Melbourne and Swinburne University. Mike was elected a Fellow of the APS in 2007, received the 2013 Ian M. Campbell Memorial Prize in Clinical Psychology and was awarded a Citation for Excellence from the American Psychological Association in 2011. Mike was Scientific Chair for the 2010 International Congress of Applied Psychology and 2016 World Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies. He currently sits or has been on the editorial Boards of, amongst others, Behavior Therapy, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy and the International Journal of Psychology. Mike has received over $17 million in grant funding and has over 150 scholarly publications. He has been a frequent invited workshop and master clinician presenter, keynote speaker and consultant to government.

Nikolaos Kazantzis
Nikolaos Kazantzis, PhD is Program Director for clinical psychology and Associate Professor at the Institute for Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences (MICCN) at Monash University. He also serves as Director of MICCN’s Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Research Unit. A/Prof Kazantzis received post-doctoral training in the early 2000s at the Beck Institute under the direct teaching of Aaron T. Beck, MD., and Judith S. Beck, PhD. Among many awards, he is recipient of the ‘Beck Scholar Award’ from Aaron T. Beck for excellence in contributions to CBT. He has over 100 scholarly publications, including the forthcoming book ‘The Therapeutic Relationship in Cognitive Behavior Therapy.’ He has developed training programs for over 6,000 professionals, and has presented workshops in 20 countries. A/Prof Kazantzis is Associate Editor for ‘British Journal of Clinical Psychology’, ‘Cognitive Therapy and Research,’ ‘International Journal of Cognitive Therapy’, Deputy Scientific Chair for the 8th WCBCT, and IACP Australian delegate and board member.

About the Editors

Edited by Ross G. Menzies, Michael Kyrios, Nikolaos Kazantzis

Table of Contents

1. Child, Adolescent and Youth Mental Health

1. The development of anxiety in childhood and adolescence: The transmission of cognitive biases by Jinnie Ooi, Helen F. Dodd, Lorraine Fliek, Peter Muris.

2. Low intensity and school based interventions for children with anxiety: Outcomes, challenges and future directions by Paul Stallard, Cathy Creswell, Krystal Lewis, Tom Ollendick and Polly Waite.

3. Long-term outcome and predictors of outcome in CBT for youth anxiety by Jon Fauskanger Bjaastad, Gro Janne Henningsen Wergeland, Krister Westlye Fjermestad, Arne Kodal, Bente Storm Mowatt Haugland, Ingvar Bjelland, Einar R Heiervang, Lars-Göran Öst, and Jennie L. Hudson.

4. Exploring research across different countries, languages and formats, of the FRIENDS programs by Marthinus Bekker.

5. Interventions for school refusal and truancy: A case of 'old dogs in need of new tricks'? by David A. Heyne and Brandy R. Maynard.

6. Effects of bullying victimization on mental health outcomes in Australian youth by Sally Fitzpatrick and Kay Bussey.

7. Innovations in CBT for young people: Improving access and outcomes for vulnerable youth by Irene Sclare and Daniel Michelson.

8. Innovative approaches to preventing and reducing substance use and mental health problems by Nicola C. Newton, Maree Teesson, Lexine Stapinski, Yael Perry, Fiona Shand and Helen Christensen.

9. "Screen time” and pathological technology use: Innovations in conceptualising and treating problems by Gerri Minshall and Daniel King.

2. Anxiety and Its Disorders

10. Broadening the research areas on social anxiety disorder by Junwen Chen, Erica Crome, Sarah Cox, Yulisha Byrow, Yoshihiro Kanai, Kristy Johnstone, Ryan Balzan, Lorna Peters, Quincy Wong, Andrew Baillie and Stefan Hofmann.

11. Evidence-based developments of CBT for late life anxiety by Naoko Kishita, Ken Laidlaw, Viviana M. Wuthrich, Sarah J. Egan and Marie Chellingsworth.

3. Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders

12. The self in psychological disorders: The example of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders by Daniel B. Fassnacht, Claire Ahern, Nathan Haymes, Adrienne Turnell, and Michael Kyrios.

13. Body dysmorphic disorder in children and adolescents: Advances in theoretical and clinical research by Sophie C. Schneider, Lara J. Farrell, Cynthia M. Turner, and Haley J. Webb.

14. Advances in cognitive behavioural models and treatments of trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder) by Imogen C. Rehm, Jade Walters, Reneta Slikboer, Tanya Arabatzoudis, Richard Moulding, Mark Boschen, and Maja Nedeljkovic.

4. Trauma, PTSD and Grief

15. Psychological mechanisms underpinning psychopathology in refugees by Belinda Liddell, Ola Ahmed, Rosanna Pajak, Emma Doolan and Angela Nickerson.

16. Traumatic events, cognitive processes, and the development of psychological interventions for youth by Anna McKinnon, R. Meiser-Stedman, S. Hogan and  Reg. D. V. Nixon

17. Understanding, screening and treating anger in posttraumatic stress disorder by Tony McHugh, David Forbes, Jacqueline Costello, David Said, Nathan Alkemade and Richard Cash.

18. Adapting CBT for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Prolonged Grief Disorder for Complex Populations and Settings by Katie S. Dawson, Fiona Maccallum, Lucy Kenny & Richard A. Bryant.

5. Obesity and Eating Disorders

19. Novel interventions for eating disorders and other transdiagnostic outcomes by Mia Pellizzer and Tracey Wade.

20. Automatic processes in eating behavior: Understanding and overcoming food cue-reactivity by Leentje Vervoort, Karolien Van den Akker, Ghislaine Schyns, Naomi Kakoschke, Eva Kemps, Caroline Braet

21. Food: Treat or threat or treatment? Reward and punishment in eating behavior and interventions to change them by Leentje Vervoort, Laura Vandeweghe, Karolien Van den Akker, Nienke Jonker, Caroline Braet, Eva Kemps

22. Child and adolescent obesity: Is cognitive-behavioural therapy part of our solution? by Gerri Minshall and Caroline Braet.

6. Depression and Bipolar Disorders

23. Cognitive processes: The role of rumination in depression and transdiagnostically by Michelle L. Moulds, Katie Chung, Ann Martin & Suraj Samtani

24. New psychosocial approaches to bipolar disorder by Thilo Deckersbach, Weilynn C. Chang, Amy T. Peters, Jonathan P. Stange, Alexandra K. Gold, Casey M. Hearing, Louisa G. Sylvia, Michael Berk, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhaes, Darin Dougherty and Andrew A. Nierenberg.

25. Predictors and moderators of treatment response for psychotherapy for depression in bipolar disorder by Thilo Deckersbach, Alexandra K. Gold, Amy T. Peters, Jonathan P. Stange, Weilynn C. Chang, Louisa G. Sylvia, Michael Berk, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhaes, Darin D. Dougherty, Andrew A. Nierenberg and Natasha Hansen.

7. Psychosis 

26. Improving the implementation fidelity and reach of ACT for complex needs by Hamish J McLeod, Ross White and Louise Johns.

27. Emotional processes in understanding and treating psychosis by Hamish J McLeod, Neil Thomas, Susan L Rossell and Andrew Gumley.

8. Alcohol and Substance Misuse

28. Beyond CBT: What is the future of alcohol use disorder treatment and prevention? by Matthew J. Gullo, Jason M. Coates,  Kiri Patton, Jason P. Connor.

29. The interplay between emotion and biased cognitive processing in problematic consumption by Lies Notebaert, Henry Austin, Peter J. de Jong, Eva Kemps, Colin MacLeod and Reinout Wiers.

9. Health and Chronic Medical Disorders

30. Motivational interviewing and CBT to improve health and well-being by Amanda L. Baker, Leanne Hides, Peter J. Kelly, Frances Kay-Lambkin, Yasmina Nasstasia, and Max Birchwood

31. Navigating the impact of serious illness across the family system using evidence-based therapeutic approaches by Ursula Sansom-Daly, Brittany C. McGill, Nadine A. Kasparian, Pandora Patterson, Frank Muscara, and Claire E. Wakefield

32. Depression and anxiety following traumatic brain injury: Can these high prevalence disorders be effectively treated using adapted cognitive behavioural therapy? by Jennie Ponsford, Dana Wong,  Adam McKay, Yvette Alway, Kerrie Haines,  Nicole K Lee, Marina Downing and Meaghan L. O’Donnell

33. Information processing and stuttering by Robyn Lowe, Mark Onslow, Ann Packman, Sue O’Brian and Ross Menzies.

34. Behavioural and cognitive treatments for children, adolescents and adults who stutter by Mark Onslow, Robyn Lowe, Ross Menzies, and Anthony Gunn.

10. Comorbidity

35. Cognitive behavioural therapy for adults with obsessive–compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorder: Influence of comorbidity and improvement of treatment outcomes by Akiko Nakagawa, Junichiro Kanazawa, Fumiyo Oshima, Aki Tsuchiyagito

36. Innovations in cognitive behaviour therapy for the treatment of co-existing mental health and substance misuse by Hermine Graham and Amanda Baker.

37. How do we best treat comorbid substance use and mental disorders? Evidence-based approaches to integrated treatment by Mark Deady, Katherine Mills, Maree Teesson, Frances Kay-Lambkin, Joanne Ross, Andrew Baillie, and Mirjana Subotic.

38. Outcome evaluation in a private practice setting by Chris Mackey and Megan L. Henderson.

11. Transdiagnostic Issues

39. The dread of death and its relationship to mental health by Rachel E. Menzies and Lisa Iverach.

40. New approaches in theory and treatment of clinical perfectionism in social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder and eating disorders by Sarah Egan.

41. When fear and sadness turn into pathological emotions: The transdiagnostic process of generalization by Kim Haesen, Jens Van Lier, Peter Lovibond & Ann Meulders

42. Interventions for transdiagnostic processes in emotional disorders by Junwen Chen, Kristy Johnstone, Shin-ichi Ishikawa, Peter M. McEvoy, Alexander Tee, David Rimmington, Kirsten Vale, Rachel Graville, Sarra Hayes, Robert Kane, Jonathan Foster and Jennifer Hudson.

43. Innovations in transdiagnostic internet and face-to-face treatments for anxiety and depression in adults by Jill M. Newby.

44. Theoretical relevance of attentional bias, and starting point for treatment: The case of body dissatisfaction by Nienke C. Jonker and Peter J. de Jong

12. E-therapy

45. A recommended process for development and evaluation of eTools for mental health and wellbeing by Stoyan Stoyanov, Leanne Hides, David J. Kavanagh, Davina Sanders, Wendell Cockshaw, Madhavan Mani.

46. From research to implementation: The eCentreClinic and MindSpot Clinic by Nickolai Titov, Lauren G. Staples, Vincent J. Fogliati, and Blake F. Dear.

47. Healthy mind, healthy body: Recent advances in internet-delivered interventions for chronic physical conditions and their comorbidities by Jill M. Newby.

13. Training, Practice and Access Issues

48. Advancing the evidence for therapeutic process as a necessary condition for cognitive behavior therapy outcomes by Nikolaos Kazantzis, Keith S. Dobson and Stefan G. Hofmann.

49. Improving access to psychological therapies (IAPT) in Australia: Evidence-based CBT interventions for anxiety, depression and gambling addiction by Paul Cromarty.

50. Implementation of evidence-based interventions: Barriers and opportunities by Erica Crome, Andrew Baillie, Maree Teesson, Frances Kay-Lambkin and Mark Deady.

51. Understanding, assessing and treating mental health disorders in older adults by Viviana M. Wuthrich and Sunil Bhar.

52. Evaluating cognitive behaviour therapy in private practice settings by Monica O’Kelly, Kathryn Gilson and James Collard.

53. Innovative cognitive-behaviour therapy: Is it the same in private practice and public health? by Gerri Minshall and Stephanie Allen.